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Linguistics Handnotes
Linguistics Handnotes
Biplob Prodhan
  • 1 month ago
  • 48
Classify English consonant phonemes oan the basis of their manner of articulation


Classify English consonant phonemes on the basis of their manner of articulation. [‘14,‘17]

Ans. The air obstruction is made by the organs maybe total, intermittent, partial, narrowing the air passage. This is called the manner of articulation. According to the manners of articulation, the consonants in English language can be classified as follows:

Plosive/StopDuring the production of these sounds, the airflow from the lungs is completely blocked at some point and then it is released. English Plosives are: /p, b, t, d, k, g/.

FricativeA fricative consonant is articulated when two speech organs approximate to such an extent that the air stream passes between them with friction. English fricatives are: /f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/.

AffricateIn the production of affricate sounds, more than one manner of articulation is involved. These sounds begin like stops, with a complete blockage of air/closure of the vocal tract and end with a restricted flow of air like fricatives. English has two affricates: /ʧ, ʤ/.

NasalTo articulate a nasal consonant, a complete closure at some point in the mouth is made. Then the soft palate is in the lowered state and the lung air escapes through the nose. English nasals are: /m, n, ŋ/.

LateralLateral consonants allow the air to escape at the sides of the tongue. English language has only one lateral consonant: /l/.

Approximants or Semi-VowelsFor producing these sounds, there is no obstruction of any kind. The articulators come close to each other but do not come in contact. English approximants are: /r, w, j/. Approximants /j/ and /w/ are referred to as semi-vowels.

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