Ques. 01. Briefly state the structural, functional and interactional sews of language.
Ans. There are many possible theoretical positions about the nature of language. Here are three different views which explicitly or implicity are reflected in current approaches to language learning :
i. The structural view of language
ii. The communicative view of language
iii. The interactional view of language
The structural view of language: The structural view of language is that language is a system of structually related elements for the transmission of meaning. These elements are usally described as phonological units (phonemes), grammatical units (phrases, clauses, sentences), grammatical operations (adding, shifting, joining or transforming elements), lexical items (function words and structure words). Different theories and methods had been designed depending on this view of language. Some of the language learning methods based on this view of language are :
i. The Audiolingual method
ii. Total Physical Response
ili. The Silent Way
The communicative or functional view of language: The communicative or functional view of language is the view that language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. In this case, the semantic and communicative dimensions of language are more emphasized than the grammatical charatteristics. Sociolinguistics, pragmatics and semantics are the main areas of research here. The target of language learning is to learn to express communication functions and categories of meanings. Some of the language learning approaches and methods which are based on this view of language are;
i. communicative approaches
ii. functional-notional syllabuses
iii, the natural approach
The interactional view of language: The interactional view of language sees language primarily as the means for establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships and for performing social transactions. between individuals. In our everyday activities, we use language for accomplishing various tasks such as advising, agreeing, apologizing, asking for directions and so on. To perform miscellaneous functions, learners need to know how to combine the grammatical rules and vocabulary to express the notions that perform functions. Some of the areas of research in this view of language are :
i. interactional analysis
ii. conversational analysis
iv. target of language learning
The target of language learning in the interactional view is learning to initiate and maintain conversations with other people.
The understanding of the notion of language is closely related to the understanding of language learning and may provide the basis for a particular teaching method. If language is considered to have a finite number of structural items, learning the language means learning these items. If language is seen as a communicative tool, then to learn the language means to use it to perform functions.
Ques. 02. Make a note on the main principles of Behaviourism Theory of Language Acquisition. [N.U. 2015, ’17]
Ans. The Behaviourist theory stands among the major theoretical perspectives within the field of the first language acquisition. It began as a reaction against the introspective psychology of the late 19th and early 20th century and dominated the study of learning throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
Main principles of Behaviourism :
Habit formation : The ground notion of behaviourism is that all kinds of behaviour can be made or formed through habit formation. They consider language as a linguistic behaviour and think that this behaviour can also be learnt through habit formation. They are opposed to the belief that a child possesses innate abilities to learn a language.
Environment, not innate ability : Behavioursts consider no difference between the Way one learns a language and the Way one learns to do anything else. The behaviourists are committed to admitting as evidence only that which can be observed. Language is only a verbal behaviour. Language learning is, therefore, controlled by the conditions under which it takes place. What appears to be variation in learning ability is really no more than different learning experience.
Stimulus response : Response is the result of an utterance which is known as stimulus. The stimulus may be physically present in the situation; it may be verbal; or it may be internal.
Reinforcement and repetition : When a child learns to make a response it will have to be reinforced. For example, if a child feels hungry (stimulus), it will say ‘want milk’ (response) and then its parent will give it some milk. As a result, the child will store the utterance ‘want milk’ in its memory because it fulfills the child’s need and finally, the utterance becomes a part of the child’s habit formation. This brings the idea of rewarding and punishing. Thus, the response, which is rewarded, will be repeated but the response, which is punished or ignored, will disappear.
Meaning : In learning a language one has to acquire both a formal # and a thematic repertoire of responses. Most behaviourists eschew the use of the ‘meaning’ altogether. To think of the meaning of a word as something built up and stored inside the individual is to imply a mental structure of some kind which the behaviourist finds objectionable and unnecessary.
Analogy : Behaviourist teaching relies more on analogy than on rules for teaching the structure of a language. By arranging each drill repetition the pupil is made to construct his new response along exactly the same line as his previous response. All the responses in any one drill will have exactly the same grammatical structure. With adequate repetition of the structure the ‘rule’ will be acquired in a way that is not only unconscious but also more conducive to spontaneous language use therefore.
To conclude, Behaviourism views learning as the formation of habits. And these habits are shaped and formed by some factors which are repetition, reinforcement, imitation, environment and drill. Language learning is an external not an internal phenomenon.
Ques. 03. Discuss and evaluate the five hypotheses in Krashen’s Monitor Model. [NU. 2012]
Ans. Krashen’s five hypotheses are:
i) The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis
ii) The Natural Order Hypothesis
iii) The Monitor Hypothesis
iv) The Input Hypothesis
v) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis: Krashen argues that acquisition and learning are two distinct ways of developing skills in a language. He says acquisition happens when learners pick up language instruments from their surrounding environment. An example of this type of learning is that children learn their first languages. They are not given formal instructions, but they acquire the competence by the age they reach five. Learning happens when learners learn through formal instructions and error corrections. It is a conscious process of developing skills in a language. Krashen believes that learning never turns into acquisition.
The Natural Order Hypothesis: Krashen believes that languages are learned through a systematic order. The process follows a predictable order. English language learners, irrespective of their first language, usually follow the same pattern in learning the grammatical rules of the second language. For example, they learn the yes/no questions before they learn the wh-questions. This order remains almost the same even though learners get differentinstructional experiences. This hypothesis also says that second language learning order is not the same as the first language.
The Monitor Model Hypothesis: Krashen argues that learning needs monitor. Monitors work as an editor to check mistakes made by users. It checks time, grammatical forms, and rules. When monitors are used, people slow down and less error happens. However, when monitors not are used, natural errors happens with more fluent performance. Overuse of monitors may decrease the learning process.
The Input Hypothesis: We learn a language when comprehensible input is used. By comprehensible input, Krashen means “i+1” input which refers to instructional materials that are one level higher than the present level of learners language competence. This hypothesis is related to acquisition. If i+1 input is provided, learners acquire the skills with interest and enthusiasm. It helps learners acquire the language; it does not focus on learning.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis:This hypothesis talks about individual factors that influence learning. Learners’ motivation, anxiety, and self-confidence play important roles in developing skills in the target language. If learners do not know why they are learning a language, they cannot learn it well. If they are worried that others will make fun of them if they speak the target language with mistakes, their learning will decline. Moreover, if learners lack self- confidence, they cannot perform well. These are three affective filters that Krashen mentions in his theory. He says learners need to have positive motivation with self-esteem to learn a language in an anxiety-free environment.
Ques. 04. What do you mean by Innatist theories? Discuss.
Ans: Language acquisition is one of the central topics in cognitive science. Every theory of cognition has tried to explain it. Probably no other topic has aroused such controversy. Possessing a language is the quintessentially human trait: all normal humans speak, no nonhuman animal does.
Noam Chomsky argues that children are born with a unique kind of knowledge which fits them for learning. This knowledge is embodied in a mechanism called the Language Acquisition Device or LAD. Chomsky believes that without postulating such a device it is impossible to understand how children master their native language in such a short time in spite of the highly abstract nature of the rules. This achievement would be particularly difficult without LAD in view of the fact that the everyday speech to which children are exposed is full of irregularities and deficiencies. According to Chomsky, it would be impossible for a child to learn the abstract system of a language from such degenerate data unless he had some prior knowledge about the general character of natural languages. He argues that since children must be equipped to learn any languages as a native language, the prior knowledge embodied in LAD must constitute that which is common to all languages, in other words, LAD must contain language universals. Universal Grammar specifies the allowable mental representations and operations that all languages are confined to use. The theory of universal grammar is closely tied to the theory of the mental mechanisms children use in acquiring language; their hypotheses about language must be couched in structures sanctioned by UG.
Chomsky argues his innateness hypothesis on basically three counts. Firstly, the existence of language universals. It is argued that the similarity in languages cannot possibly be due to anything other than a specific cognitive capacity in man. Everybody learns a language, not because they are subjected to a similar conditioning process, but because they possess an inborn capacity which permits them to acquire a language as a normal maturational process. This capacity is by definition universal.
The second count on which Chomsky argues his innateness hypothesis is the fact of language learning itself. He argues that the adult speech which a child hears around him is so poorly structured and impaired in performance (by hesitations, repetitions, false starts and so on) that he could not possibly learn language unless he brought to the task a very specific capacity. The ultimate product of LAD is an internalized system of rules which characterize the structure of a language, and which underlie both comprehension and production.
The third and the last count on which the innateness hypothesis is argued concerns the speed of acquisition of language. Language could not be learnt with the speed at which it is done unless the child was preprogrammed to do so.
According to behaviorists, the mind consisted of sensorimotor abilities plus a few simple laws of learning, governing gradual changes in an organism’s behavioral repertoire. Therefore, language must be learned, it cannot be a module. And thinking must be a form of verbal behavior, since verbal behavior is the prime manifestation of “thought” that can be observed externally. Chomsky argued that language acquisition falsified these beliefs in a single stroke: children learn languages that are governed by highly subtle and abstract principles, and they do so without explicit instruction or any other environmental clues to the nature of such principles. Hence language acquisition depends on an innate, species-specific module that is distinct from general intelligence. Much of the debate in language acquisition has attempted to test this once-revolutionary, and still controversial, collection of ideas.
Ques. 05. Make a comparative study of the Behaviourist theory and the Mentalist theory of LI acquisition. [N.U. 2014]
Ans. The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike. During the twentieth century there has been a great deal of psycholinguistic research into how this process takes place. These research findings have revolutionized the way many linguists regard the language learning process. However, the interpretation of these investigations has always been under dispute and it has consequently divided linguists into adherents of two contradictory hypotheses: behaviorism on one side and innatism on the other. The following segment presents a comparative study between these two diametrically opposite theoretical accounts of language acquisition, along with a brief inquiry into their theoretical assumptions.
Behaviourism states that children learn from environments, and develop skills through stimulus-response-reinforcement process. Behaviourist theorists believe children are born with “tabula rasa” or a blank slate. They learn from parents, neighbours, and the environment. The theory also suggests that people can be conditioned to behave in a certain way. The behaviourist theorists do not consider biological backgrounds, individual personality characteristics, and personal thinking process or ideas. They only believe in “right conditioning” (Cherry, 2015). In terms of language acquisition, the behaviourist theorists argue that learners can develop proficiency if they are put in a situation when they repeatedly respond to positive stimuli. Through repetition, they will be conditioned to perform well.
On the other hand, innatist view of language acquisition suggests that children are born with the language learning ability. Chomsky says that children come to this world with some sorts of mental ability to learn a language. The evidence of his claims is that children acquire the grammar of their first language in first three /four years. Innatist views also state that children learn through mistakes, not by following fixed/rigid rules.
Ques. 06. Give a historical overview of language teaching methods.
Ans. From the beginning of the 20th century, researchers started to explore newer methods and approaches to language teaching. Previously, the Grammar-Translation Method, also known as the Classical Method, was used to teach ancient languages, such as Latin and Greek. Later, people wanted to read literature of other languages, and they needed to know the grammatical rules and vocabulary of the target language. With that in mind, teachers followed the GTM to teach students. Learners learned grammatical rules extensively so that they could understand the literary pieces of the language. Knowing a foreign language was considered prestigious. Later on, in the 1920s and 1930s, emphasis was given on teaching the target language by using Direct Method. This method suggested teaching a language by using that language all through. It never followed translation to teach a language. DM suggests use of realia and visuals to teach the target language. The medium of classroom communication should also be the target language. The other name of DM is the Natural Method.
After the end of the Second World War, there emerged another method, which was named the Audio-Lingual Method. In this method, learners were exposed to listening activities so that they could understand how language should be used at different contexts Audios and videos in the target language were used extensively as teaching materials. In the 1960s, the Silent Way emerged that was proposed by Noam Chomsky (1965). He argued that people could learn a language by using their LADS (Language Acquisition device). According to him, mistakes in using a language are a sign of active engagement in the process. This method is inspired by the theory of cognitive approach (Chomsky, 1965) where teaching was meant “to serve” (Freeman, 2000; p. 54) learning. In line with the Silent Way, Georgi Lozanov (1979) proposed that learners usually fear the use of the target language, which is why they cannot perform well. The method is called Desuggestopidea. He suggests that teachers need to help learners get rid of the mental pressure that they may suffer from in using the target language. In the late 1970s and through 1980s, the Communicative Language Teaching Method and Total Physical Response method emerged. CLT suggests designing a syllabus, materials, tasks and activities in order to develop real life communicative skills of learners. Similarly, TPR suggests learning language by doing it. It means students would be physically responding to the instructions teachers would give. Then, in the 1990s and 2000s, researches focused on content-based and task- based language teaching methods. Through these methods, learners do not learn a language to use it; rather, they use the target language to learn something (a content), or to complete a task (collecting school garbage). In both the situations, learners are provided with a situation where the target language is in use. After Gardner introduced the concept of Multiple Intelligence, the perspective to all the methods shifted. In this post-method era, it is believed that teachers need to consider all the methods and make their own to fulfil the needs of their local students.
Ques. 07. Give an evaluation of the Grammar Translation Method focusing on its main characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. [NU. 2012]
Ans. GTM is a language teaching method that was used in teaching ancient Greek and Latin. The main goal of teaching a foreign language at that time was to help students develop reading and writing skills. Learners wanted to read literature in the target language, and people wanted to translate literary pieces from one to another language. The process of teaching a language through GTM involves teaching grammar rules deductively. It means teachers will teach the grammatical rules and make sure that students use them correctly at different contexts. The main strength of following GTM is that it helps learners use their mother tongue in learning the target language. Though many educators did not like the idea of using mother tongue in teaching a foreign language in the 20th century. some researchers nowadays suggest using mother tongue to a limited degree. Learners may feel comfortable in the classroom if their first languages are used to help them understand a concept. Moreover, GTM can be very helpful in developing vocabulary skills. As learners learn to translate, they learn many words and phrases in the target language. This helps learners comprehend reading texts easily. It is also noteworthy that GTM emphasizes mastering the target language by learning grammar rules. Though grammar teaching has been given less priority in recent years, grammar is an inseparable part of a language. Grammar is still taught with great importance, but the approach and techniques are different.
The main weakness of GTM is that it puts almost zero importance to communication skills. What is the point of learning a language if learners do not know how to use it in real life situations? Listening and speaking skills are two important skills that GTM undervalues. If Tearners do not understand what a person is saying, and if he/she cannot communicate with somebody from the target language, learning a language appears to be ineffective. Another weakness is that GTM does not teach learners cultural and social aspects of the target language population. Learning a language means learning a culture, which seemed to be devalued in GTM. Finally, GTM teaches grammar rules deductively. It means teachers explain rules and students learn the rules discreetly. They do not learn grammar rules in context. It is also thought that GTM classrooms are dominated by teacher-talk, which hinders students’ participation. If teachers can be facilitators, students’ participation and interaction will increase, and they will learn in a cooperative learning environment.
GTM can be used partially in a mono-lingual context like Bangladesh; but, teachers need to make sure that they are focusing on communication skills of learners. However, everything depends on the needs of learners. If learners want to develop reading skills, GTM can be used to some extent. If they want to develop listening and speaking skills, very little rooms are there to use GTM. All coins have two sides, and GTM has both strengths and weaknesses. Current teachers need to think “how” and “why” they would use a specific method.
Ques. 08. What are the key features and techniques of Direct Method? What are its advantages and limitations?
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001), the key features of the Direct Method are the following:
(1) Medium of instruction: Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language.
(2) Vocabulary and sentences are selected and taught on the basis of their usefulness in everyday situations.
(3) For the sake of developing oral communication skills, question-and-answer exchanges are frequently arranged between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
(4) Grammar is taught inductively. That is, ‘rules’ are not given by the teacher; students are made to discover the ‘rules’. (5) New teaching points are introduced orally first. That is,students listen and speak before they read or write.
(6) Translation is not allowed in teaching vocabulary; so concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
(7) Unlike in GTM, both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
(8) Native-like pronunciation and correct grammar are emphasized.
Larsen-Freeman (2000) discusses the following techniques of the Direct Method:
1) Reading Aloud: Students read sections of passages, plays or dialogues aloud.
2) Question and Answer Exercise: The teacher asks questions in the target language and students answer in full sentences.
3) Student Self-Correction: The teacher creates opportunities for students to self-correct using follow-up questions, tone, etc.
4) Conversation Practice: The teacher asks students and students ask students questions using the target language.
5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise: Students are supposed to fill in the blanks using knowledge of grammar that they acquired inductively.
6) Dictation: The teacher reads the passage aloud a number of times at various speed and tempo while students write down what they hear.
7) Using maps: In order to develop learners’ listening comprehension skills, the teacher may give students an unlabeled map and give directions; students listen and label the map.
8) Paragraph Writing: Students write paragraphs in their own words using the target language and various models.
i) It focuses on real life communication
ii) It gives a lot of emphasis on oral communication and interaction
iii) It helps students feel competent
iv) It helps get rid of fear of using the target language
v) It helps create a participatory international language learning environment
i) It does not give any value to the L1 in learning L2
ii) It aims at creating an environment where children learn their L1, which seems to be too ambitious
iii) It does not emphasize writing and reading skills which are
iv) It does not teach grammar rules which might be necessary.
In my opinion, DM will work the best when a group of learners aim at developing only communicative competence. For example, a group of workers want to go to Saudi Arabia. They will not be reading or writing academic texts in the Arabic language. Rather, they will be communicating with their employers and members of the families. DM will work very well for them in interacting with the family members.
Ques. 09. Discuss the procedures of the Natural Approach in teaching four skills. What are the four basic stages of SLA mentioned in the Natural Approach? [N.U. 2017]
Ans. Krashen and Terrell (1983) approach course organization from two points of view. First, they list some typical goals for language courses and suggest which of these goals are the ones at which the Natural Approach aims. They list such goals under four areas: Basic personal communication skills: oral (e.g.. listening to announcements in public places) Basic personal communication skills: written (e.g., reading and writing personal letters)
Academic learning skills: oral (e.g., listening to a lecture)
Academic learning skills: written (e.g., taking notes in class)
Of these, they note that the Natural Approach is primarily designed to develop basic communication skills both oral and written. They then observe that communication goals may be expressed in terms of situations, functions and topics and proceed to order four pages of topics and situations which are likely to be most useful to beginning students. The functions are not specified or suggested but are felt to derive naturally-from. This approach to syllabus design would appear to derive to some extent from threshold level specifications.
The Second point of view holds that the purpose of a language course will vary according to the needs of the students and their particular interests.
The goals of Natural Approach class are based on an assessment of student needs. We determine the situations in which they will use the target language and the sorts of topics they will have to communicate information about. In setting communication goals, we do not expect the students at the end of a particular course to have acquired a certain group of structures or forms. Instead we expect them to deal with a particular set of topics in a given situation. We do not organize the activities of the class about a grammatical syllabus. From this point of view, it is difficult to specify communicative goals that necessarily fit the needs of all students. Thus, any list of topics and situations must be understood as syllabus suggestions rather than as specifications
Ques. 10.What are the goals and principles of Audio-lingual method? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. [NU. 2012]
Ans. Audio-lingual method is a way of teaching where students do what teachers ask them to do. Students repeat some selected dialogues after the teachers and memorize rules of grammar and phrases through repeated drills. Through practising drills, learners form a habit of using the learned language in context.
The main goals of the Audio-lingual Method are:
i) to help learners form a habit of using some patterns of a language in context
ii) to develop speaking and listening skills
iii) to communicate in the target language properly
iv) to make learners competent to be successful communication.
The main principles of this method are:
i) learning is habit formation
ii) drilling and repetition of some selected patterns and structures of the target language
iii) focusing on forms and pronunciation, not on meaning
iv) giving positive and negative feedback based on correct and incorrect responses
v) emphasizing memorization of selected phrases and patterns
vi) using audio-visual materials
There are many advantages of this method. First, learners get to practice the target language through speaking and listening. Teachers use a lot of visual aids that is also helpful for the learners to internalize the linguistic structures. Some of the techniques of Audio-lingualism are still used at some places. Memorization of some idioms/phrases is still common in many situations. This helps learners memorize and remember chunks of the target language and use them whenever necessary. However, language learning cannot be habit formation. Learners can memorize some parts of a language, but to become competent users of the target language, learners need to use their freedom of using phrases and structures. This is the major disadvantage of Audio-lingualism. Learning a foreign or second language is a process where mistakes are a part. (Nobody can learn a foreign language entirely by memorizing some sentences and patterns. Language learning is a fluid pattern where success comes through a course of time. Teachers can use drilling of dialogues for the students; however, students should have independence in making sentences and using words on their own while communicating or practising a new language.
Ques. 11. What is Situational Language Teaching? Discuss the approach, design and procedure of SLT. [NU. 2012]
Ans. An oral approach or Situational Language Teaching (SLT) is teaching a language based on speech, structure and a set of basic vocabulary. Situational Language Teaching is a way of teaching where students are engaged in drills of the target language structures that are presented in situations. Students repeat some selected dialogues or sentence structures while describing pictures through repeated drills. Through practising drills, learners form a habit of using the learned language in a context.
The approach in SLT follows the theory of structuralism emerged in the UK. In this approach, first, speech is the basic component of a language. Structure plays the central role in speaking. However, the structure should be related to the context of learning. Also, language is considered as a purposeful activity, which is related to the goals and situations of learning. Second, it follows a behaviourist approach to language teaching, which considers learning as habit formation. Similar to the Direct Method, this adopts an inductive approach to language teaching.
In terms of design, SLT focuses on the four language skills. Therefore, it emphasizes both pronunciation and grammar. It adopts a structural syllabus of language teaching. For example, the syllabus will have a list of basic sentences structures in English. To implement or teach the structures, SLT follows drills in the classroom as well as visuals and realia to make learning easier. The learners are required to listen and repeat what the teacher says, and responds to teacher’s questions. On the other hand, the teacher’s job is to present the model of the target language and set up situations to contextualize the structures.
The procedure in SLT varies across the level of students. The major techniques or procedures in SLT are:
i) describing pictures
ii) repeating sentences after the teacher
iii) memorizing some selected words or phrases, and drilling them in dialogues
These activities are important to achieve the goal of SLT. Because the principle of SLT is to improve oral proficiency through habit formation or practising, repeating sentence structures and vocabulary will help students drill the patterns. It is also important in SLT that students will produce error-free language. Therefore, learners are given repeated activities so that they can memorize and produce the patterns. Yet, unlike Audio-lingualism, the drills are done in contexts or situations, such as providing pictures to the learners so that they can describe those using the expected structures and vocabulary.
Ques. 12. Discuss the main principles of The Communicative Language Teaching. Why is CLT considered an approach rather than a method? [N.U. 2016, ’18]
Ans. According to Richard, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) stands for a concept of language teaching that focuses on the functional and communicative potential of language. CLT is an approach that can be interpreted and adapted in many different ways. Richards & Rodgers claimed that teachers and language teaching experts from different educational traditions can identify with it, and consequently interpret it in different dimensions. The main principle of learning a second language is to communicate using it which is
the main goal of CLT approach. Piepho mentioned some objectives as a goal of any communicative approach. Those are pointed below:
i. Language is an integrative and content level.
ii. Language is a semiotic system and an object of learning. iii. Language is an affective level of interpersonal relationships and conduct
CLT approach is totally different from other methods and approaches. For some CLT is to teach grammar inductively and for some it is to practice various classroom procedures like pair work, group work, role play, dialogue making which are the ways to solve the language problems among the learners and language must be mastered by these procedures. There is discussion about the versions of CLT which is a piece of a cake among the linguists. CLT is distinguished in weak version and strong version. In the weak version, grammar is still the main focus point to be learned as language although it is often dressed up in functional labels: asking the way, talking about yourself, making future plans etc. And in strong version various classroom activities are to be proposed and to be performed for the mastery of the language. It is also known as the procedures of Task-Based Approach for second language acquisition.
The grammar is to be used in a proper way and it is also a learning point as the communicative competence refers to know the grammar to use. Vocabulary knowing is also a target but not in deductive way. And these should be done in a socially appropriate way.
According to Richards and Rodgers, a number of procedures can be practiced in CLT program as for example group work, language games or role plays. However, none of these exercises are used in CLT classes exclusively. In a class, at first, the teaching points are introduced as the suggestions and the grammar is taught in isolation. Then the classroom activities are provided like pair work, group work. The dialogues and exercises take place are briefed in the classroom. Language forms and functions are encouraged by the procedures of a typical CLT classroom.
CLT is an approach, which emphasizes the communicative potential of language and which is compatible with a great variety of classroom procedures and which can be best described by the following principles:
i. Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
ii. Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal classroom activities.
iii. Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
iv. Communication involves the integration of different language skills
v. Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error (Richards &Rodgers 2007: 172).
European and American language teaching experts view CLT as an approach, and not a method which has communicative competence as its goal of language teaching and which seeks to include all of the four language skills into communicative exercises. The origins of CLT can be found in changes in the British language teaching tradition.
Ques. 13.What are the roles played by the learners and the teachers in CLT? [NU 2012]
Ans. Communicative language teaching is an approach the focuses on developing communicative competence in real life situations. It is a way of teaching that promotes interaction between teacher and students and among students. The main purpose of this teaching approach is to help learners gain confidence in using the target language when they are required to use it.
The main roles that teachers play in CLT are:
i) Facilitator: Teachers act as facilitators. They do not teach anything; rather, they design task and activities that students do. Teaching communicative competence means focusing on meaning making conversation. Students engage in debate, discussion, and problem-solving tasks which are facilitated by teachers.
ii) Developing and using authentic materials: Teachers develop authentic and interesting materials that offer interaction in real-life situation to the learners. For example, teachers can design a role-play between a salesperson and a buyer in the classroom. For this task, teachers can bring some potatoes, tomatoes, green chillies, lentils and so forth in the class. Then, a student plays the role of a salesperson and another can take the role of a buyer. They role play of selling and buying groceries. They can also bargain on the price which is very common in Bangladesh market places.
ii) Practising functions and forms of the target language in context rich environment: Teachers need to plan activities that are bound to specific functions and forms of the target language. For example, “seeing a doctor” could be the function of a classroom task. Teachers can design the class keeping the forms of language use in a doctor’s office. Students make dialogue and role-play with the written dialogue.
iii) Adopting a learner-centred classroom environment: Teachers should create an environment which is learner-centred and anxiety-free. Having a favourable environment would encourage students to speak out and engage in effective communication. If the class is controlled by teachers, students would be passive. Passive students are not a part of a CLT-based class.
On the other hand, students are communicators in CLT. They take responsibilities of their own learning by actively participating in learning activities. In the classroom, for example, they take part in group works and role play. They also share their opinions independently. They ask questions if they do not understand anything. The teacher only guides them through the process. Learners in CLT always use the language as much as possible. They look for learning opportunities outside the classroom. For example, they will watch English movies to develop their listening skills. They will also do voluntary work to get the opportunity to speak.
Ques. 14. What are the challenges or barriers to implement CLT in Bangladesh? Or, Identify and discuss the challenges in implementing CLT in Bangladesh. [N.U. 2015, ’17]
Ans. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a second language acquisition approach. It appeared when Situational Language Teaching and Audiolingualism were no longer appropriate methodologies for foreign language teaching. It is an approach which aims to make communicative or situational competency and develops procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledges the independence of both language and communication.
In Bangladesh, since 1971 after its independence English has become a compulsory subject at every level of schooling from primary to higher level. Grammar-Translation(GT) Method was implemented to teach English as a subject. GT method is a teacher- centered and students remain passive listeners. The challenges in implementing CLT in Bangladesh are pointed below:
Large Class: CLT approach is required very organized classroom. In Bangladesh, there are generally large classes in every educational institute. To implement CLT class, large number of students inside a single classroom is a barrier. Small group to communicate and negotiate about meaning are necessary in CLT program. Besides the sitting arrangements are not appropriate for conducting pair work or group work. Teachers cannot make pairs and groups these make the classroom noisy and hamper the environment of the class. The high number of students in a class is a challenge in implementing CLT to teach English.
The Syllabus: Another great challenge to implement CLT in Bangladesh is the syllabus and curriculum. The National Curriculum Textbook Board of Bangladesh(NCTB) took step to introduce CLT with the context of Bangladesh. The English books provide pictures, dialogues, diagrams, tasks, activities for the language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The class should be interactive to achieve such abilities on language. But the public examination is based only on writing and reading skills. For this mismatch between the syllabus and curriculum implementing CLT in Bangladesh is a challenge. Though teachers try to practice the four skills in the classroom but students are de-motivated as examination does not include listening and speaking.
Lack of training: In Bangladesh, there is a lack of providing training to the teachers on CLT. The British Council in Bangladesh offers a 40 hour intensive training on CLT, but it costs a lot of money. Though the private colleges of capital can afford the cost, the teachers in general of Bangladesh have little opportunity to join national or international seminar, conference on CLT. No initiative has been taken so far to introduce communicative techniques to the teachers. The lack of orientation, pre-service and in-service training is also a barrier in implementing CLT class. A pre-service is not mandatory in Bangladesh to join in an educational institution as English teacher. English teachers should take pre-service training before joining as teachers.
Different culture: The socio-cultural context is different from the country where CLT was developed. In Bangladesh the teacher is center figure of the classroom and students are passive listeners. This prevents the class to be interactive and communication between teacher and students never occurs. The formal relationship between teacher and students is a cause of failing to implementing CLT in Bangladesh. Without the communication, CLT cannot be happened in the classroom. Bangladeshi students lack team spirit. CLT requires students’ participation in classroom activities. Parents forbid the students to argue or to ask questions to teacher. So, for this culture students do not talk to the teacher inside the classroom if it is not urgent.
Lack of technological support: For running a CLT class, multimedia, LED monitors, computers, pictures, CD/DVS are needed primarily. But most of the educational institutions do not have these facilities; in fact some of the institutes still go with the traditional blackboard and chalk.
These are the problems in implementing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in Bangladesh.
Ques. 15.What is task-based language teaching? Mention its theoretical rationale, syllabus, assessment and problems with assessment.
Ans. Task-based Language Teaching is a process of teaching where students are engaged in thinking and doing a task designed and regulated by the teacher. In the process, students complete a focused task by using the target language. The end product should be something original and accomplishing. For example, a group of students can go to the American Centre to know about their programs and activities. After coming back from the Centre, they report to the class. This is a task-based language teaching approach which provides students with opportunity to complete a task by using and developing the target language skills. However, this approach does not focus on the language use; rather, it focuses on completing the task. Using and developing the language skills would be the logical consequence of the completion of the task.
Rationale: The rationale of using the task-based language teaching is to engage learners into meaningful and authentic tasks. The purpose is to put students in situations where they develop strategies to complete a designed task and become independent learners.
Syllabus: The syllabus of TBLT depends on the context and level of students. Teachers need to design a TBLT syllabus by doing a need’s assessment and diagnostic tasks. After doing this, they can design a task-focused syllabus by incorporating tasks that may range from easy to difficult tasks. For example, teachers can design a TB syllabus for intermediate-level students by incorporating the following tasks:
i) simulated task of ordering a tea and shingara
ii) buying a rail ticket
iii) learning about the programs of various Embassies or High Commissions
iv) completing a chart of what students did yesterday
Ques. 16. State the main principles of the total physical response Method (TPR)?
Ans. Total physical response is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching. Methods in the comprehension approach emphasize the importance of listening to language development, and do not require spoken output in the early stages of learning. In total physical response, students are not forced to speak. Instead, teachers wait until students acquire enough language through listening that they start to speak spontaneously. At the beginning stages of instruction students can respond to the instructor in their native language.
While the majority of class time in total physical response is spent on listening comprehension, the ultimate goal of the method is to develop oral fluency. Asher sees developing listening comprehension skills as the most efficient way of developing spoken language skills. Lessons in TPR are organized around grammar, and in particular around the verb. Instructors issue commands based on the verbs and vocabulary to be learned in that lesson. However, the primary focus in lessons is on meaning, which distinguishes TPR from other grammar-based methods such as grammar-translation. Grammar is not explicitly taught, but is learned by induction. Students are expected to subconsciously acquire the grammatical structure of the language through exposure to spoken language input, in addition to decoding the messages in the input to find their meaning. This approach to listening is called code-breaking.
Total physical response is both a teaching technique and a philosophy of language teaching. Teachers do not have to limit themselves to TPR techniques to teach according to the principles of the total physical response method. Because the students are only expected to listen and not to speak, the teacher has the sole responsibility for deciding what input students hear.
Ques. 17. What is ‘postmethod pedagogy”? Discuss the strategic framework proposed by B. Kumaravadivelu. [N.U. 2014, ’17]
Ans. Postmethod pedagogy refers to a conventional concept of ‘Method’ since it appeared as an authentic method which is likely to work fruitfully in all contexts and cultures. It evolved to meet the requirements of the best way of teaching English liberated from the method-centered limitations. The major concern of the experts in the area of education in general and language teaching specifically has been finding solutions to problems of language teaching and learning. This tendency helped vanishing method and given birth to postmethod. The most critical reason of this evolution or change is the discovery of educational community and their explanation and comprehension of limitations of the idea of method. Academic and language experts, in effect no more helpful elements for administering different classes with varied requirements. Practicality in post-method pedagogy is a bridge that links theory and practice to one another. Postmethod Pedagogy has facilitated the learning and teaching process in many aspects but its practically has been criticised in several ways.
The strategic framework proposed by kumaravadivelu : In view of Kumaravadivelu the postmethod strategic framework for language teaching consists of macrostrategies and microstrategies He termed macrostrategy as instructing principle, the exploratory visions associated to learning and teaching. The three major features of the postmethod condition. A macrostretegy is a “broad guideline’ relying on that teachers may improve their individual situation-specific and requirement based microstrategies or classroom methods. kumaravadivelu asserts that macrostrategies are ‘theory neutral as well as ‘method neural’. In other words, the framework is the framework is not consisted of on the basis of the implied beliefs of any particular theory of language learning and teaching, even not conditioned by a set of theoretical idealisms or classroom methods associated to any one specific language teaching method.
The strategic framework includes 10 macrostrafegies which are as follows:
(a) maximise learning scopes, (b) ensure debated communication, (c) minimise perceptual dissimilarities, (d) activate perceptual heuristics, (e) boost up language awareness, (1) contextualise linguistic input, (g) integrate language skills, (h) improve student autonomy or freedom, (i) increase cultural awareness and (i) secure social relevance. On the basis of these, teachers may afterwards plan their individual microstrategies.
Macrostrategy 1: The first macro-strategy, enhances learning scopes, regards teaching as a procedure of producing and making use of learning scopes for students.
Macrostrategy 2: This macrostretegy means significant student- student, student-teacher intercommunication in class. Traditional role play activities in general applied in Bangladeshi classrooms mostly do not include any direct engagement of students as they merely read gut text books containing dialogues.
Macrostrategy 3: In language teaching perceptual match or mismatch is one of the greatest hindrances between teachers and students. So, this is necessary to be conscious about the future origins of perceptual mismatches.
Macrostretegy 4: A great deal of grammatical information may be delivered not actively through rules but passively through instances. Students should be inspired to innovate the rule governing pattern in the instances given.
Macrostrategy 5: This strategy boosts up the language awareness through deductive teaching. It is commonly termed as an individual’s consciousness about the pattern of language and its contribution in human social communications.
Macrostrategy 6: This macrostrategy facilitates the teacher improve syntactic, semantic and practical use of language which may include different discourse-based activities.
Macrostrategy 7: The seventh macrostrategy includes a combination of language efficiency conventionally recognised and sequaled as Estening, speaking, reading and writing.
Macrostrategy 8: Macrostrategies proposed by B. Kumaravadivelu language learning happens not only inside but also outside or beyond the classroom where ensuring students’ freedom is significantly necessary.
Macrostrategy 9: Raising cultural awareness is considered as one of the most integral part of language teaching. Commonly, it is objective at producing in language learner consciousness and sympathy towards the culture of the language community.
Macrostrategy 10: Kumaravadivelu asserts the requirement for the teachers to be generous and concerned to the social, political, economic and academic atmosphere.
Kamaravadivelu carries on his concepts promoting the model of postnehod pedagogy and its strategic frameworks in language teaching.
Ques. 18. Discuss the major strategies and techniques of developing vocabulary. [NU. 2013]
Or, Discuss the vocabulary teaching strategies.
Ans. There are two major techniques of vocabulary teaching explicit and implicit vocabulary instruction. Following these techniques, the teacher can develop their own strategies of teaching vocabulary. However, some major strategies should be considered in every classroom depending on students’ level and interest. Following are the major strategies according to each technique of vocabulary teaching.
Explicit vocabulary instruction can be done following some strategies. First, pre-teaching vocabulary is useful to teach students major words before reading a text. Teachers can pre-select some difficult words from the text. Then they explain the words to the students or cluster the synonyms and anonyms into categories. Discussion on the words also helps students understand the words before starting reading. Second, teachers can use word maps, such as semantic mapping and definition maps to teach vocabulary explicitly. Morphological clustering helps student group words that are similar in meaning. They understand the relationship among the words through the visual representation of the words in a cluster. This helps them guess the meaning of a new word even before knowing the exact meaning of the word. In contrast, semantic maps are very useful in teaching vocabulary. It helps students categorize meanings of a word into groups and subgroups. Therefore, students are able to understand the words in relation to other concepts. Moreover, students can visualize the relationships between the words. This activates their cognition and helps them learn and remember the words better.
Analysing parts of a word is another strategy that helps understand the possible meanings of the word. Students can identify different parts of the word by dividing it into its root and affixes. For example, “uncomfortable” is a word. The root word is comfort. ” able” is a suffix, and “un-” is a prefix. Usually, when the suffix “able” is added to a root it becomes an adjective, while “un” is added as a prefix to a root to make a negative meaning. Therefore, the meaning of the word uncomfortable is “not having comfort”.
Implicit vocabulary instruction, on the other hand, involves two major strategies. Incidental learning is one of the implicit techniques that can help students learn vocabulary while reading a text. They encounter the word in the context and try to relate it to other familiar words in the context. This is how they learn the word incidentally. Another implicit strategy is to learn the word from the context. For this, students have to read the whole paragraph, and try to get as much clue as possible about the word meaning. Then they try to match all the possible meanings to the context, and find out the closer meaning.
Apart from the above, using dictionaries and thesaurus effectively is very important to learn vocabulary. Teachers have to make students aware of this strategy. All the strategies and techniques are equally important. However, they should be applied depending on the context- the students’ levels and needs.
Ques. 19. Discuss the roles of teachers in language classroom. [N.U. 2015] Or, What are the roles of a teacher in a language teaching class-room? [N.U. 2018]
Ans. A number of teacher’s roles can be demonstrated via the analysis of Jeremy Harmer (1991). He divided teacher’s roles into different categories. Several of them are narrated below:
1. Teacher as controller: This role is extraordinary in the past. In the class of teacher as controller, teacher directs both what the learners do and what they speak and what language they use. (Harmer, 1991) Therefore the teacher in this kind of role is very strong that he can concentrate on the front of the class. Pupils are all working to the similar beat as all learners are taught the similar by one similar teacher. (Harmer, 1991). The demerits of this roles of teacher is that learners will learn only what the teacher taught in class.
2. Teacher as determiner : Teacher determines reaction of the pupils. Harmer classified determination into two types:
Adjustment: This is to rectify students answer whether they are right and provide them with the correct answers.
Managing students’ response: Teaching without managing response is like asking them questions without hoping any reply from them. Therefore response is required.
3. Teacher as organiser: Teacher also has to be liable for everything that may take place in class. With a view to avoiding any problem that may take place, good class organisation is required. Harmer advised three levels of teaching as:
LEAD-IN→ DEMONSTRATE→ INITIATE→ FEEDBACK
Lead-in is the level where teachers lead students to what they are about to teach. Prove is when the teacher discusses class regarding what they are likely to do as well as the reason they have to do it. Initiate is when teacher ensure all the pupils are prepared to begin doing it. Response is what teacher hoped students from that specific activity.
4. Teacher as energiser: This role of teacher is to inspire learners to take part or make advices regarding the way the learners may advance in an activity. (Harmer, J., 1991:241)
5. Teacher as participant: In view of Harmer, teacher should take part with learners in that activities too such as contributing themselves and progress the environment in class.
6. Teacher as resource: In this role, teachers behave like they are books. If students do not open them, they will know nothing from them.
7. Teacher as tutor: This is the role the teacher takes where learners are engaged in self-study. Teachers can facilitate pupils by marking the mistakes and permit them think about them.
8. Teacher as investigator: This role of teachers is quite extensive. They have to test everything that takes place in class and enquire which activity is fruitful with their students and what methodology or technique should be ignored in the next class. They also has to judge themselves to attain more professional development.
With a view to fulfilling all these roles, teachers require regular time together to discuss, inspire, compare concepts, trouble-shoot when things do not go as hoped and establish cooperation between classrooms. (Zemelman, S., 1994). Currently, course organisation must not be assessed and established just by school governors as this is also one of the major roles for teachers (Julie Ferris. 1998).
Ques. 20. What are the merits and demerits of using literature in ELT classroom? [N.U. 2017)
Authenticity – The content based on literature is claimed to provide authentic input for language learning, the necessity of which is of high criterion.
Motivation – Owing to its relevantly interesting content in i authenticity, literature is bound to be a motivational factor for learners acquiring the target language.
Cultural awareness– Being based upon matters dealing with cultures prevalent all over the universe, literature acts as an input source for booming language learners.
Intensive/Extensive reading practice – Literature is a requisite for both intensive as well as extensive reading purposes for being able undertake reading in a short amount of time.
Pragmatic knowledge – A pragmatic account of literature has it natural place in such a theory. It assumes that in literary communication we not only have a text, but that the production (and interpretation) of such a text are social actions. Owing to is authentic nature, literature tends to be socio-linguistic in the form of communicative competence models.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) – Reading literature is proven to have nurtured EQ amongst its learners. The essence of EQ is also important while dealing with the levels of a learner’s emotional maturity, as it teaches them to come in terms with their feelings,
Text selection – Literary texts which possess relevance and interest to learners are the ones that must be included in the syllabus. Although the lai guage of literature is somewhat reformed to suit the instructional purpose, some students may still find its application complex, with its foreign vocabulary and the student’s lack of cultural understanding based on the text.
Text length – Shorter texts may be easier to use within the limited duration of a class. However, longer texts provide more contextual details, and development of character and plot, the execution of which requires an extended number of classes to be completed.
Linguistic difficulty – The selected texts ought to be appropriate to the level of the learner’s comprehension level. Most learners may be unable to adapt with the complex, lingual structures that are required for text presentation in literature.
Cultural difficulty – The chosen texts must not be so culturally dense that outsiders feel excluded from understanding essential meaning. Also, the learners may feel offended by textual content, often being unable to decipher it in the right context.
Teacher’s perspective– Teaching through literature utilizes a literature-based approach, the applications of which may be more difficult than using other, simpler approaches. First-time teachers may find it especially challenging, since literature-based approaches inherently have less structure than many other approaches. Teachers also may struggle with effectively assessing a child’s progress. Because literature-based instruction is less widely used than other forms of instruction, teachers often spend hours choosing literature selections, as well as developing activities and evaluations that reflect the content.
Scope and sequence– Finding appropriate literature selections that address the skills that students need to learn can be challenging, and finding selections that actually build from one year to the next is virtually impossible. This implies that using literature-based instruction. may prevent students from building their skills in a systematic fashion, and they may miss out on some skills entirely, which can prevent them from growing as readers, writers, and thinkers.
Ques. 21. Define Linguistic Imperialism. Discuss the role of English Language Teaching in Linguistic Imperialism. [N.U. 2016)
Ans. The term “linguistic imperialism” was coined in the 1930s as part of a critique of Basic English. It was later reintroduced by linguist Robert Phillipson in his monograph “Linguistic Imperialism” (Oxford University Press, 1992). In that study, Phillipson offered this working definition of English linguistic imperialism: “the dominance asserted and maintained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages.” Phillipson viewed linguistic imperialism as a subtype of linguicism.
The study of linguistic imperialism entails analyzing the policies by which dominant languages, nationally and internationally, have been consolidated and what the consequences are for other languages. The presence of European languages worldwide reflects language policy – as a key dimension of colonial empires-Anglo American, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish-both in countries where Europeans settled and in exploitation colonies. This entry presents the key constituents of linguistic imperialism together with some critiques of it. It gives examples of the way English was promoted in the UK and USA and how European languages were exported and consolidated worldwide, showing the devastating consequences for other cultures and languages.
In the postcolonial age, the pedagogy promoted by the UK, the USA, and the World Bank for the learning of English was founded on five fallacies: the monolingual fallacy, the native speaker fallacy, the early start fallacy, the maximum exposure fallacy, and the subtractive fallacy. Elite formation in the age of globalization and neoliberalism also takes place in mono-lingual “international” schools, which are spreading worldwide. The ways in which English is privileged in education systems, and discourses justifying it, need critical scrutiny, as do the language policies of the European Union. Policies that strengthen linguistic diversity are needed to counteract linguistic imperialism. There are many places where linguistic imperialism is in full force, such as in Turkey and China.
It can be argued that a language program developed by the dominant culture, which provides learners with a different way of life, value and modes of thinking, brings enrichment. Learners can gain a wider perspective and their reasoning ability develops. They can systems become more open-minded, tolerant and flexible. Their cross- cultural understanding develops which might also bring economic advantages and opportunity for social mobility. Being equipped with the language, value system and mode of thinking of the dominant culture helps individuals attain socioeconomic power. It also helps them to be successful in the dominant culture, and provides them with various opportunities (education, etc.). It also has some societal advantages. Since the norms of that system are set by the dominant culture, it forces the dominated culture to meet those standards, encouraging social development. It also gives the dominated culture access to the dominant culture’s science and technology to be used for improving itself.
Eventually, it can also help itself produce its own technology, as in the case of Japan at the turn of the century. Furthermore, it can increase communication among cultures, fosters cross-cultural understanding, and thus leading to the achievement of global peace. However, any prescribed, universal and imported model is far from considering this reality. It does not analyze the needs, characteristics, attitudes, values and global POV of the native culture to design a specific language education plan that can work for that specific culture. It neither takes into account national and international goals, policies and relations, not considers the availability of resources. In short, such a policy is far from determining the language education goals of that specific culture based on the analysis of the nature and the context of language education. Naturally, such a policy, which does not seek the factors mentioned above, may not meet the needs, demands, and goals of a Society, with the result that there will be a mismatch between the prescribed language education program and a native culture. Since it is based on the dominant culture’s norms, this policy is unlikely to work in another context (Pennycook, 1989). In this case, as Brown (1995) and Richards (2001) point out, such an application brings failure rather than success, and the limited economic resources and human power of that culture continue to be wasted.
Ques. 22. Evaluate the role of the reform movement in the history of English Language Teaching focusing on the principles of the Reform Movement. [NU. 2013]
Ans. The Reform movement took place in the 19th century following innovation in language teaching. Because of this movement, language education experienced a dramatic change. The principles of the reform movement are:
i) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
ii) Student should hear the language first before they read it.
iii) Use of dialogues are given importance in the classroom to enhance communication skills in the target language.
Ques. 23. What is meant by ‘Desuggestopedia”? Identify the main principles of ‘Desuggestopedia’ and evaluate their relevance to the mainstream Bangladeshi classrooms.
Ans. Desuggestopedia is an application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy. Desuggest is the opposite of suggest. It is used to eliminate the negative feeling and Suggestopedia is used to reinforce the positive feeling and to release the full mental power.
The prime objective of Desuggestopedia is to tap into more of students’ mental potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by which they learn to understand and use the target language for communication. Four factors considered essential in this process are: a) the provision of a relaxed and comfortable learning environment, b) the use of soft Baroque music to help increase alpha brain waves and decrease blood pressure and heart rate, c) ‘desuggestion’ in terms of the psychological barriers learners place on their own learning potential, and d) ‘suggestibility’ through the encouragement of learners assuming ‘child-like’ and/or new roles and names in the target language.
The main principles of Desuggestopedia are:
i) Learning is stimulated through a rich environment using materials from the target language such as vocabulary, language structures and so forth.
ii) Desuggesting learners’ fear and anxiety through a comfortable environment using music and colourful decoration is important.
iii) Students are expected to be “child-like” in the classroom so that they can absorb the learning without any anxiety.
iv) The teacher takes the role of authority and creates the appropriate environment for learning.
Here are some of the key features of Desuggestopedia:
(1) Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as comfortable as possible, featuring soft cushioned seating and dim lighting.
(2) “Peripheral learning is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decorations featuring the target language and various grammatical information.
(3) The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom. (4) Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners’ potential to learn are ‘desuggested”..
(5) Students are encouraged to be child-like, take ‘mental trips with the teacher’ and assume new roles and names in the target language in order to become more ‘suggestible’,
(6) Baroque music is played softly in the background to increase mental relaxation and potential to take in and retain new material during the lesson.
(7) Students work from lengthy dialogues in the target language, with an accompanying translation into the students’ native language.
(8) Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and not structure. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and given treatment from the teacher, but not dwelt on.
(9) Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialogue they are studying, once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they get up.
(10) Music, drama and ‘the arts’ are integrated into the learning process as often as possible.
Desuggestopedia does not provide for the majority of language teaching environments teachers typically encounter. The dim lighting, large comfortable chairs and music selections are not readily available to the majority of schools, and these ‘environmental factors’ are certainly close to impossible for very large classes. It does not take account of the fact that learners in many countries do not necessarily bring an intrinsic desire to learn the language into their English lessons, and its basic foundations in cognitive theory very much limit it to the realm of adult learning. For the same reasons, it does not seem to be very appropriate in mainstream schools in Bangladesh.
Despite its limitations, Desuggestopedia provides some valuable insights into the power of cognition and creating/employing techniques that make students feel comfortable and relaxed, and ‘suggestible’ to the material being learned. Some of its techniques such as desuggestion, or positive suggestion can be useful in increasing students’ motivation in Bangladeshi schools. Also, by creating a relaxed classroom environment, teachers can remove fear and anxiety that many students have about learning English. Thus, although not suitable in its entirety in contexts like Bangladesh, Desuggestopedia does offer some valuable guidelines for us. A teacher using CLT or GTM should consider incorporating some of these principles and techniques.
Ques. 24. Discuss the importance of ‘pair work’ and ‘group work’ in a language classroom. [N.U. 2018]
Ans. The objective of treating the class as an entire group is the initial goal of a language classroom and teachers of it. Young students can become autonomous in their learning and progress like a successful one.
The importance of pair work and group work in a language classroom:
i. Provides learners with elaborated speaking time.
ii. Alters the steps of the contexts.
iii. Focuses on both the weak learners and strong learners.
iv. Permits learners to collaborate with all the group members or his or her peer in the pair.
v. Provides them with a feeling of attainment while aiming at a target.
vi. Helps the students to learn how to lead and be led by someone apart from teachers.
vii. Permits learners to observe, walk around the class and actually concentrate on the language lesson is being taught.
Both pair work and group work have earned a platform in language teaching classes. Applying group works and pair works facilitate learners to practise variety of things in particular. Moreover, collaborating with others provides them the scope of communicating with a wide range of people and learn reciprocally.
These inspire them in self help and cooperation which also facilitates them to get involved in the class more and lessen indiscipline. Pair work is regarded most effective for practicing sample conversations. For example, playing games of words, vocabulary testing, completing worksheets etc. Working in pairs helps students individually with more speaking time. Working together will increase their self motivation level and also confidence. They will achieve the confidence of learning independently. Student can play roles and acquire a language more proficiently than ever through teams forming. Groups give students the create more advanced dialogues, experiment relationships between others, extract knowledge comprehensively in a social, cooperative atmosphere. Moreover, it is a great chance for learners to rectify themselves in a friendly community. Teachers can increase the dimension of speaking time of learners by reducing the class size in a group.
Pair work is more difficult to oversee in comparison to group work. Talking about consisting pair or group in a classroom, every student is not supposed to get benefited from the same partner or group members. Teachers should ensure teaching through different peers or group members while using group work or pair work in language teaching. It can be done by seating arrangements of learners. Teachers may also tell learners to sit close to each other to maximise their learning. Combining the strategy will keep classes interesting and effective in respect of achieving an effective language learning goal.
Ques. 25. State the role of students in different methods.
Ans. Where there was once consensus on the “right” method of teach foreign languages, a number of teachers at present share the concept that a single right method does not prevail. It is specifically genuite that no relative study has compatibly proved the superiority of one method over another for all teachers, all learners and all settings.
Language teaching strategies in practice nowadays are the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method, the Audio- Lingual Method, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language Learning, the Total Physical Response Method, and the Communicative Approach. How a method is proof in the classroom will rely greatly on the person’s teacher’s explanation of its idealisms. Several teachers choose to exercise one of the ways to the deduction of others. Other teachers choose to pick and prefer in a standardised means among the methodological ways that prevail, creating their individual authentic combination. A short listing of the significant aspects of the eight methods are as follows:
Grammar-Translation Method: The Grammar-Translation Method emphasises on improving learners’ prais of the target language’s literature and teaching the language. Learners are exhibited with target-language studying texts and reply to questions that follow. Other activities are translating literary texts from one language into the other, cramming grammar rules, and cramming native-language similar elements of target language vocabulary. Class work is greatly structured, with the teacher directing all activities.
Direct Method: The Direct Method permits learners to guess meaning directly through the language since no translation is permitted. Visual aids and pantomime are used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items and ideas. Learners speak to a great extent in the target language and interact as if in real circumstances. Reading and writing are taught from the beginning, though speaking and listening skills are focused. Grammar is taught inductively.
Audio-Lingual Method: The Audio-Lingual Method is centered on the behaviourist concept that language learning is acquiring of a set of right language natures. The student repeats forms until capable of producing them actively. Once a provided form – for instance, subject- verb-prepositional phrase is learned, the speaker can alternate words. to make novel sentences. The teacher instructs and controls learners’ norms, gives a model, and reinforces correct reactions.
The Silent Way: The theoretical foundation of Gattegno’s Silent Way is the concept that teaching must be dependent to learning and thereby learners must progress their individual internal complexity for correctness. All four skills reading, writing, speaking, and listening are taught from the starting. Learners mistakes are – expected as a normal part of learning: the teacher’s silence facilitates boost up self-reliance and leaner initiative. The teacher is active in establishing situations, while the learners do most of the conversations and communications.
Suggestopedia: Lozanov’s method intends to facilitate students deduct psychological obstructions to learning. The learning atmosphere is relaxed and subdued, with low lighting and soft music in the background. Learners select a name and character in the target language and culture, and think that individual. Dialogs are exhibited to the accompaniment of music. Learners merely relax and hear them being read and later sportively exercise, the language during an “activation” phase.
Community Language Learning: In Curren’s method, teachers regard learners as “whole persons,” with intellect, feelings, instincts, physical responses, and intend to learn. Teachers too identify that learning can be risky. By comprehending and accepting learners’ weakness, teachers support learners feel ensure and defeat their fears, and thus facilitate them harness positive power for learning. The syllabus used is learner-generated, in that learners select what they want to learn in the target language.
Total Physical Response Method: Asher’s approach starts by placing initial priority on listening comprehension, emulating the primary levels of mother tongue learning, and then moving to speaking, reading and writing. Learners prove their comprehension by executing orders given by the teacher, teachers give novel and mostly funny elements of the commands. Assignments are planned to be humorous and to permit learners to guess active learning rales Assignments finally involve games and skits.
The Communicative Approach: The Communicative Approach focuses on the necessity to teach communicative competence as contrast to linguistic competence; there by, functions are focused on over forms. Learners generally work with unique elements in small groups on communicative activities, while which they get practice in argumentative meaning.
Founder of EDNOUB.
Bibliography: Text Books, Internet, Study Guide