Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure, while parole and langue are two concepts within the study of language that refer to different aspects of language use.
Langue refers to the underlying system of language, which consists of rules and conventions that govern how language works. It is the abstract system of language that exists in the minds of speakers and allows them to communicate with one another. Langue is made up of various components, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. These components work together to form the structure and meaning of language.
Parole, on the other hand, refers to the actual use of language by individuals in specific situations. It is the concrete manifestation of langue, and it can vary widely depending on the speaker, the context, and the audience. Parole is the real-world application of the rules and conventions of langue, and it can be influenced by factors such as dialect, accent, register, and context.
To illustrate the difference between langue and parole, consider the following example. The sentence “I ain’t got no money” is an example of parole, as it is a specific utterance of language used by a particular speaker in a particular context. However, the underlying system of language (langue) dictates that this sentence violates certain rules of standard English, such as the use of double negatives and the omission of the auxiliary verb “have.” Thus, while the sentence is an example of parole, it does not conform to the rules of langue.
Another example of the difference between langue and parole can be seen in the way that language changes over time. Langue evolves gradually over time as new words, structures, and conventions emerge and become accepted by the language community. Parole, on the other hand, can change rapidly as individuals adopt new slang terms, idioms, or ways of speaking. This can create a mismatch between the rules of langue and the actual use of language in parole.
Linguists study both langue and parole in order to gain a deeper understanding of language and how it works. By analyzing the underlying system of language (langue), linguists can identify patterns and structures that are shared across languages and that help to explain how language is learned and processed by the brain. By studying actual instances of language use (parole), linguists can gain insights into how language is used in different contexts and how it varies across different speakers and communities.
In conclusion, langue and parole are two important concepts within the field of linguistics that refer to different aspects of language. Langue refers to the underlying system of language, while parole refers to the actual use of language by individuals in specific situations. By studying both langue and parole, linguists can gain a deeper understanding of language and how it works, as well as the ways in which it is used and evolves over time.