Ans. Krashen’s five hypotheses are:
i) The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis
ii) The Natural Order Hypothesis
iii) The Monitor Hypothesis
iv) The Input Hypothesis
v) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis: Krashen argues that acquisition and learning are two distinct ways of developing skills in a language. He says acquisition happens when learners pick up language instruments from their surrounding environment. An example of this type of learning is that children learn their first languages. They are not given formal instructions, but they acquire the competence by the age they reach five. Learning happens when learners learn through formal instructions and error corrections. It is a conscious process of developing skills in a language. Krashen believes that learning never turns into acquisition.
The Natural Order Hypothesis: Krashen believes that languages are learned through a systematic order. The process follows a predictable order. English language learners, irrespective of their first language, usually follow the same pattern in learning the grammatical rules of the second language. For example, they learn the yes/no questions before they learn the wh-questions. This order remains almost the same even though learners get differentinstructional experiences. This hypothesis also says that second language learning order is not the same as the first language.
The Monitor Model Hypothesis: Krashen argues that learning needs monitor. Monitors work as an editor to check mistakes made by users. It checks time, grammatical forms, and rules. When monitors are used, people slow down and less error happens. However, when monitors not are used, natural errors happens with more fluent performance. Overuse of monitors may decrease the learning process.
The Input Hypothesis: We learn a language when comprehensible input is used. By comprehensible input, Krashen means “i+1” input which refers to instructional materials that are one level higher than the present level of learners language competence. This hypothesis is related to acquisition. If i+1 input is provided, learners acquire the skills with interest and enthusiasm. It helps learners acquire the language; it does not focus on learning.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis:This hypothesis talks about individual factors that influence learning. Learners’ motivation, anxiety, and self-confidence play important roles in developing skills in the target language. If learners do not know why they are learning a language, they cannot learn it well. If they are worried that others will make fun of them if they speak the target language with mistakes, their learning will decline. Moreover, if learners lack self- confidence, they cannot perform well. These are three affective filters that Krashen mentions in his theory. He says learners need to have positive motivation with self-esteem to learn a language in an anxiety-free environment.